Exploring the Power of "Happiness Hormones"- SEROTONIN

In our quest for happiness, we often look for external factors such as material possessions or achievements. However, happiness is not solely dependent on these external influences. Our body possesses a remarkable system that generates "happiness hormones," also known as neurotransmitters, which play a crucial role in shaping our emotional well-being.

Manuela Băbuș
Medical Writer
Exploring the Power of "Happiness Hormones"- SEROTONIN

Serotonin: The Mood Regulator

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), often referred to as the "feel-good" hormone, is a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in regulating mood, happiness, and emotional well-being. 

It is involved in various physiological processes, including sleep, appetite, and cognitive functions. Additionally, it also affects the movement of our digestive system. 

Recently, scientists have discovered that serotonin is involved in metabolic processes, such as maintaining blood sugar levels and controlling body fat.

Most of the serotonin in our body is produced by specialized cells called enterochromaffin cells (EC), which are located throughout our gastrointestinal tract. These cells act as sensors, detecting and responding to the nutrients we consume and the presence of certain gut bacteria and the substances they produce.

The balance of serotonin in our body is important, as disruptions in its levels have been linked to various metabolic diseases.

The central nervous system (CNS) and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are key areas where serotonin plays an essential role. Studies have demonstrated connections between serotonin and:

-bone metabolism

- breast milk production

- liver regeneration

- cell division.  

Scientists have found a relationship between circulating serotonin levels and conditions like diabetes and obesity. Understanding how serotonin influences our body and how our gut bacteria influence it can provide valuable insights into maintaining our health.

The majority of serotonin in the body is found in the GI tract, where it regulates bowel movements. Enterochromaffin cells in the digestive tract sense food in the stomach and respond by releasing serotonin. 

Increased serotonin levels in the gut accelerate digestive processes, often in response to the presence of toxins or harmful substances. Additionally, serotonin plays a role in reducing appetite during meals.

Drugs like ecstasy and LSD increase serotonin levels in the brain, resulting in effects such as heightened appetite, increased sexual drive, euphoria, and hallucinations.

When serotonin is released into the bloodstream, it is often absorbed by platelets. This interaction between serotonin and platelets leads to platelet aggregation, vasoconstriction, and the formation of blood clots. This clotting function is one of the earliest recognized roles of serotonin.

Serotonin can cause nausea when it is released into the gut at a faster rate than it can be digested. 

Serotonin has been linked to increased sexual drive but decreased sexual function. This can be a concern for patients taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), commonly prescribed for depression. 

Sources of Serotonin:

Serotonin is primarily produced in the brain, but about 90% of serotonin is synthesized in the gastrointestinal tract. Some sources can help boost serotonin levels:

  1. Healthy Diet: Consuming a well-balanced diet that includes foods rich in tryptophan can promote serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) production. Tryptophan is an amino acid that acts as a precursor to serotonin. Foods such as salmon, eggs, turkey, nuts, seeds, spinach, and pineapple are excellent sources of tryptophan.
  1. Sunlight Exposure: Sunlight plays a significant role in serotonin production. Spending time outdoors and getting natural sunlight exposure helps trigger the synthesis of serotonin in the brain. Aim for at least 15-30 minutes of sunlight exposure daily, preferably in the morning or early afternoon
  2. Regular Exercise: Engaging in regular physical exercise has been shown to boost serotonin levels. Both aerobic exercises like running, swimming, and cycling, as well as activities like yoga and tai chi, can contribute to increased serotonin production and release.

Decreased Serotonin Levels:

Low serotonin levels have been associated with mood disorders such as depression, anxiety, and seasonal affective disorder (SAD)

Symptoms of decreased serotonin levels may include:

  • sadness, 
  • irritability, 
  • low self-esteem, 
  • disrupted sleep patterns. 

It is important to note that serotonin levels can be influenced by various factors, including genetic predispositions and environmental stressors.

Simple activities like exercise, exposure to sunlight, and acts of kindness can boost serotonin levels naturally, leading to an improved sense of well-being.

How to Increase Serotonin Levels:

There are several strategies to naturally increase serotonin levels and improve mood:

  1. Regular Exercise: As mentioned earlier, physical exercise is a powerful way to boost serotonin production. Aim for at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise most days of the week to experience the mood-enhancing benefits.
  1. Mindfulness and Meditation: Practices like mindfulness meditation and deep breathing exercises have been shown to increase serotonin levels. These techniques help reduce stress and promote a sense of calm and well-being.
  1. Healthy Sleep Patterns: Quality sleep is essential for maintaining optimal serotonin levels. Establishing a consistent sleep routine, creating a sleep-friendly environment, and practicing relaxation techniques before bedtime can improve sleep quality and enhance serotonin production.
  2. Social Connections and Support: Engaging in meaningful social interactions, fostering strong relationships, and seeking emotional support can positively impact serotonin levels. Connecting with loved ones, participating in group activities, and engaging in acts of kindness can promote a sense of well-being


  • Serotonin is a vital chemical in our body that affects our mood, sleep, digestion, and metabolic processes.
  • It is produced by specific cells in our brain and in the gastrointestinal tract (90%) and interacts with our gut bacteria. Exploring the connection between serotonin and our gut microbiota can contribute to a better understanding of our overall well-being.

By incorporating healthy lifestyle practices such as a balanced diet, regular exercise, sunlight exposure, and nurturing social connections, we can naturally enhance serotonin production.

Article Citations & Bibliography
  1. Jones LA, Sun EW, Martin AM, Keating DJ.The ever-changing roles of serotonin.Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2020 Aug; 125:105776. Epub 2020 May 29.
  2. D.J. Keating et al. What is the role of endogenous gut serotonin in the control of gastrointestinal motility? Pharmacol. Res. (2019)

Please note that the information provided on this blog is for educational and informational purposes only. It is not intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified healthcare provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this blog.

Share this post
Manuela Băbuș.
Medical Writer